Each of the four types of
humors corresponded in
ancient times to a different
personality type. These were associated with a domination of various biological functions. Lievegoed suggested that the temperaments come to
clearest manifestation in
approximately 6 and 14 years of age, after which they become subordinate (though still influential) factors in personality.
The sanguine temperament is traditionally associated with air. People with this
temperament tend to be
playful, lively, sociable,
carefree, talkative, and
pleasure-seeking. They may be warm-hearted and
optimistic. They can make
new friends easily, be
imaginative and artistic, and often have many ideas. They can be flighty and changeable; thus sanguine
personalities may struggle
with following tasks all the
way through and be
chronically late or forgetful. Pedagogically, they can be best reached through
awakening their love for a
subject and admiration of people.
The choleric temperament is traditionally associated with fire. People with this
temperament tend to be
egocentric and extroverted.
They may be excitable, impulsive, and restless, with reserves of aggression, energy, and/or passion, and try to instill that in others.
They tend to be task-oriented people and are focused on getting a job done efficiently; their motto is usually "do it
now." They can be ambitious, strong-willed and like to be in charge.
They can show leadership, are good at planning, and are often practical and solution- oriented.
They appreciate receiving respect and esteem for their work.Pedagogically, they can be best reached through mutual
respect and appropriate
challenges that recognize their capacities.
The melancholic temperament is traditionally associated with
the element of earth. People with this temperament may
appear serious, introverted , cautious or even suspicious.
They can become preoccupied with the tragedy and cruelty in the world and are susceptible to depression and moodiness.
They may be focused and
conscientious. They often
prefer to do things
themselves, both to meet their own standards and
because they are not inherently sociable. Pedagogically, they can be
best met by awakening their sympathy for others and the suffering of the world.
The phlegmatic temperament
is traditionally associated with water. People with this
temperament may be inward and private, thoughtful, reasonable, calm, patient, caring, and tolerant. They tend
to have a rich inner life, seek a quiet, peaceful atmosphere,and be content with themselves. They tend to be steadfast, consistent in their habits, and thus steady and faithful friends. Pedagogically, their interest is often awakened by
experiencing others' interest in a subject. People of this temperament
may appear somewhat
ponderous or clumsy. Their
speech tends to be slow or appear hesitant.Source